Must-Issue with Limited Discretion is a subset of Must-Issue licences that falls between the pure issuance policy and the issuance policy where the issuing authority has limited discretion to deny applicants a secret port permit based on the applicant`s suitability or the reason for the permit application, even after the applicant has completed the required training and background check. has passed. In States with such licensing practices, the issuing authority should demonstrate, with supporting evidence, that the applicant is not suitable or does not have a reasonable need for approval. Most rejections in these states are usually overturned on appeal, provided the applicant has passed a background check and meets all training requirements for approval. States whose laws allow limited discretion are Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Oregon and Pennsylvania. Although Connecticut can be issued by law, in practice it also falls into this subset. Attempts have been made in the 110th Congress, the U.S. House of Representatives (H.R. 226), and the U.S. Senate (p. 388) to enact laws that require full reciprocity for secret harbor permits. Opponents of national reciprocity have pointed out that this legislation would effectively require states with more restrictive licensing standards (e.g., training, safety audits, „good reason“ requirements, etc.) to comply with permits from states with more liberal licensing policies. Proponents pointed out that the same situation is already happening with marriage certificates, adoption orders and other government documents under the U.S.
„Full Faith and Credit“ clause. Constitution.  Some states have already adopted a „full faith and solvency“ policy that treats out-of-state licenses in the same way as out-of-state driver`s licenses or marriage certificates, without federal law imposing such a policy.  In the 115th Congress, another universal reciprocity bill, the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act of 2017, was introduced by Richard Hudson. The bill passed the House of Representatives but did not pass the Senate.  Carrying or concealed carrying of a concealed weapon (CCAC) is the practice of carrying a weapon (e.g., handgun) in public in a secret manner, either on one`s own body or in close proximity. Not all weapons covered by the laws of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons are lethal. For example, in Florida, transporting pepper spray in more than a certain volume (2 ounces) requires a CCW permit, while anyone is legally allowed to carry a smaller device, „chemical self-defense spray“ hidden on their person without a CCW permit.   In 2019, 18.66 million hidden gun permits were issued in the United States.  The Gun Control Act, passed by Congress in 1968, lists offenders, illegal aliens, and others codified as prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms. During the secret port state application process, you will conduct thorough background checks to prevent these individuals from obtaining permits.
In addition, the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1994 created a system maintained by the FBI to instantly check the background of potential gun buyers to prevent those individuals from receiving firearms. Cook writes that „there is an emerging consensus that the causal effect of deregulating secret port (replacing a restrictive law with a RTC law) as a whole was to increase violent crime.“  Donohue and Cook argue that the crack epidemic has made it difficult to determine the causal effects of conventional weapons laws, and that this has not made previous findings conclusive; Recent research does not suffer from the same challenges when it comes to causality.  A 2018 literature review by RAND concluded that concealed carrying has no impact on crime or can increase violent crime. The review states: „We found no qualifying studies showing that secrecy laws [of violent crimes] have decreased.“  On May 22, 2009, President Barack Obama H.R. signed Section 627, the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009, which went into effect. The bill included a horseman introduced by Senator Tom Coburn (R-OK) prohibiting the Home Secretary from issuing or enforcing regulations restricting the possession of firearms in national parks or wildlife sanctuaries as long as the person complies with the laws of the state in which the unit is located.  This provision has been supported by, among others, the National Rifle Association and the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence, the National Parks Conservation Association, and the Coalition of National Park Service Retirees.   Since February 2010, hidden handguns have been legal for the first time in all but 3 of the nation`s 391 national parks and nature reserves, provided all applicable federal, state, and local regulations are followed.  Hawaii is a notable exception. Concealed and overt wearing is illegal in Hawaii for anyone except retired military personnel or law enforcement. Previously, firearms were allowed in parks if they were disguised and unloaded. While Hawaii, Maryland, New Jersey and some cities and counties in California, Massachusetts and New York can technically be issued under state law, in practice they are not jurisdictions, with government policy directing discretionary officials to rarely or never issue licenses.
In addition, some U.S. island territories (U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, etc.) are not problematic jurisdictions in practice. Most trouble-free jurisdictions have exceptions to their laws that allow overt or hidden wearing by current and retired law enforcement officers, armed security personnel on duty and in uniform, and for members of the armed forces. Wisconsin and Illinois were the last emission-free states until concealed wearing was legalized in 2011 and 2013, respectively. Prior to legalization, Wisconsin banned concealed wearing, but open wearing was legal throughout the country. Illinois had banned concealed wearing and generally banned open wearing in most places. Some states require undercover applicants to certify their skills with a firearm through some type of training or counseling. Some training courses developed by the National Rifle Association, which combine classroom instruction and live ammunition, generally meet most state training requirements. Some States recognize previous military or police service as a training requirement.  In distinguishing between grant and optional question, this distinction need not necessarily be explicitly stated in the exact letter of the legislation.
On the contrary, a more precise factor in whether a State should issue an exhibition or exhibition is whether or not the applicant must prove a „valid reason“ when applying for authorization. Precedents also play an important role in deciding whether a state can or should enact regardless of the wording of the state`s law. For example, New York is a May state, even though its secret port licensing laws include the words „issue“ because New York law requires applicants to provide a „good reason“ when applying for a secret port permit. Because the „right reason“ is highly subjective, issuing authorities in New York have a wide margin of discretion in determining what constitutes a „good reason,“ and the ability for an ordinary citizen to obtain a secret harbor permit varies widely across the state. In contrast, the gun licensing law in neighboring Connecticut includes the words „may issue,“ even though Connecticut is indeed an exposing state. This is because Connecticut`s pistol licensing law does not require the applicant to provide a „good reason“ when applying for a pistol license from the issuing authority. Because Connecticut`s licensing law has no subjective standard for a „good reason,“ that state`s courts have repeatedly and consistently ruled that issuing agencies must issue pistol licenses to applicants who meet the state`s legal qualifications for a gun license.